Health care jobs require years of higher education. But workers willing and able to make that investment see it pay dividends in the form of high salaries and ample opportunities. Plus, experts predict there will be great demand for nurses, physicians and other medical practitioners in the years to come.
医疗健康工作需要多年的高等教育。但是,愿意并有能力进行这种投资的人能够看到,这种长时间的教育投资能够通过高薪和大量机会的形式获得相应的回报。此外,专家预测,未来几年对护士、医生和其他医疗从业者的需求将会很大。

Those factors make health care jobs some of the best available in the U.S., according to the?Best Jobs of 2019?ranking. Other industries represented at the top of the list include business and technology, the category that holds this year' s top job, software developer.
根据2019年最佳工作排行榜,上述所提及的这些因素使医疗保健工作成为美国最好的工作之一。其他名列榜首的行业还包括商业和科技行业,今年的榜首行业是是软件开发商。

Data for this ranking comes from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, an arm of the federal Department of Labor. The highest median salary the agency records is $208,000, so some of the following professions may offer median annual incomes higher than that amount.
这份排名的数据来自联邦劳工部下属的劳务统计局。该机构记录的最高薪资中值为20.8万美元。因此,在最高薪资以下的其他一些职业年收入中值可能高于这个数字。

Check out the best careers and learn about each profession.
看看这些职业分别都是什么,并且来了解一下它们吧

Accountant
会计师

For companies, governments or clients, accountants prepare and evaluate financial records for accuracy and to make sure taxes are promptly paid. Their responsibilities may entail making presentations or writing reports. These professionals may work as public accountants, who produce reports required by law, or management accountants, who work with internal budgets.
对于公司、政府或者是客户,会计人员准备并评估财务记录的准确性,以确保及时缴纳税款。他们的职责可能包括做陈述或写报告。这些专业人员可能作为公共会计师而活动,他们负责制作法律要求的报告,或者是管理负责处理内部预算的会计师。

Accountants need at least a bachelor' s degree, and many have roles that require them to earn certified public accountant licenses.
会计师至少需要学士学位。他们中的许多人职位要求他们获得注册会计师执照。

Cartographer
制图师

As modern mapmakers, cartographers use surveys and images to collect and study geographic data, then turn it into useful visual representations. They're employed by the government and firms that specialize in architecture, engineering and science.
作为现代地图绘制者,制图员使用调查和图像来收集和研究地理数据,然后将其转化为有用的视觉表征。他们可能受雇于政府和专攻建筑、工程和科学的公司。

Cartographers typically have bachelor's degrees in cartography, geography, surveying or geomatics.
制图师通常拥有制图学、地理学、测量学或地貌学学士学位。

Mathematician
数学家

Many mathematicians analyze data and use statistical theories to help make decisions for businesses and government offices. Others work in academic settings, teaching and conducting research about how the universe works.
许多数学家分析数据,并使用数据理论来帮助商业机构或者政府办公室做出决策。其他人可能在学术背景下活动,教授和进行有关宇宙如何运行的研究。

Surgeon (tie)
外科医生

Pay is high for this job – but so is stress. Surgeons work under extremely high pressure, spending days and nights hovering over the operating table while treating diseases and illnesses through surgery. They need steady hands, sharp reflexes and solid problem-solving skills.
这份工作的薪资很高——但压力非常大。外科医生在极大的压力之下工作,日夜在手术台上盘旋,通过手术治疗疾病。他们需要稳定的双手,敏锐的反应能力和扎实的解决问题的技能。

These doctors may specialize in orthopedics, neurology, cardiovascular health or even plastic surgery, providing cosmetic or reconstructive services to patients. Surgeons must earn undergraduate and medical school degrees, then complete years of residency training.
这些医生的专业领域可能是骨科、神经学、心血管健康,甚至整形外科,为病人提供美容或重建服务。外科医生必须获得本科和医学院学位,然后完成多年的住院医生培训。

Physician (tie)
内科医生

This is a catch-all term for doctors of all varieties. Some physicians are internists whose work focuses on specific organ systems, including the liver, digestive tract or kidneys. For example, cardiologists are experts in heart health, while dermatologists focus on the skin. Other physicians work in family medicine, advising on common conditions such as minor injuries and infections and providing annual checkups. No matter their specialty, physicians may prescribe medicine, order and interpret tests and provide advice.
这是一个包罗万象的术语,适用于各种各样的医生。有些内科医生是内科医生,他们的工作重点是特定的器官系统,包括肝脏、消化道或肾脏。例如,心脏病专家是心脏健康方面的专家,而皮肤科医生则专注于皮肤。其他医生则从事家庭医学工作,为轻微受伤和感染等常见情况提供咨询,并提供年度体检。无论他们的专业是什么,医生都可以开药、安排和解释检查并提供建议。

Nurse Practitioner
执业护师

In most states, these advanced nurses can perform many duties associated with doctors, including diagnosing disease, prescribing medicine, requesting medical tests and referring patients to specialists. Nurse practitioners may work with specific sets of patients, such as people with mental illness, children or older adults.
在大多数州,这些高级护士可以履行与医生有关的许多职责,包括诊断疾病、开药、要求进行医学检查和将病人介绍给专家。护士从业人员可能与特定的患者群体合作,如精神疾病患者、儿童或老年人。

After completing college, nurse practitioners must earn master' s degrees and licenses. They work in hospitals, outpatient centers and doctors' offices.
在完成大学学业之后,执业护士必须获得硕士学位和执照。他们在医院、门诊中心和医生的办公室等地工作。

Orthodontist (tie)
整牙医生

Orthodontists specialize in shifting crooked teeth and correcting misaligned bites. Tools of their trade include braces, retainers and spacers.
正畸医师的专长是移动弯曲的牙齿和矫正错位的咬合。他们所使用的工具包括支架、固定器和垫片。

The path to the orthodontist chair passes through many educational institutions. After graduating from college, these professionals must complete dental school (another four years) and then a specialized orthodontist program (another three years). Then they need to earn state licenses. The payoff for all that work? High salaries and above-average work-life balance.
通往正畸牙医的道路要经过许多教育机构。从大学毕业后,这些专业人员必须完成牙科学校(另一个四年),以及一个专业的正畸医生计划(另一个三年)。在那之后,他们还需要获得州执照。所有这些工作的回报是什么?高工资和高于平均水平的工作与生活平衡性。

Dentist
牙医

Treating medical problems that arise in the mouth is the specialty of dental doctors. They use X-rays, exams and tools like drills to diagnose and care for issues such as cavities and gum disease.
治疗口腔疾病是牙科医生的专长。他们使用x射线、检查和钻头等工具来诊断和治疗蛀牙和牙龈疾病等问题。

These oral health care experts earn college degrees, then attend specialized graduate programs. They may work with other dentists or run their own practices while collaborating with dental hygienists.
这些口腔保健专家需要获得大学学位,然后参加专业的研究生课程。他们可能与其他牙医合作,或者在与牙科保健师合作的同时经营自己的业务。

Statistician
统计师

When businesses and government agencies need help making sophisticated decisions and solving complicated problems, they turn to statisticians. These math whizzes gather data, then use theories, models and specialized software to predict outcomes.
当企业和政府机构需要帮助做出复杂的决策和解决复杂的问题时,他们会求助于统计学家。这些数学奇才们首先收集一定的数据,然后使用理论、模型和专业软件来预测结果。

College degrees and master' s degrees are typical for statisticians, often in subjects such as mathematics, economics or computer science. They may specialize in fields like engineering or physics.
一般来说,统计学家们需要获得本科和硕士学位,通常涉及数学、经济学或计算机科学等学科。他们可能专攻工程或物理等领域。

Software Developer
软件开发人员

For the second year in a row, software developer tops this list. That's thanks to how integral digital technology has become to our personal and professional lives. Software developers pay attention to both aesthetics and function as they create and fix applications and programs for computers and smartphones.
软件开发人员已经连续第二年位居该榜单的榜首。这要感谢数字技术如何融入我们的个人和职业生活。软件开发人员在为计算机和智能手机创建和修复应用程序和程序时,既注重美观又注重功能。

Software developers typically have college degrees in computer science or a related discipline. Employment opportunities in the field are soaring; they' re expected to increase by more than 30 percent by 2026.
软件开发人员通常拥有计算机科学或相关学科的大学学位。该领域的就业机会正在飙升;预计到2026年,这一数字将增长30%以上。